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Adbul-Mumit v. Alexandria Hyundai, LLC

United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit

July 13, 2018

JIHAD ADBUL-MUMIT; MATTHEW ABEDI; MONICA ADAIR SARGENT; MARK AGEE; ALIZ AGOSTON; YVONNE ALSTON; DAN AMATRUDA; KRISTY AMBROSE; KIMBERLEY AMICK; WANDA G. AMOS; CHRISTOPHER ARAUZA; CARL ARSENAULT; BROOKE ASHER; MICHELLE ATKINS; RAYMOND O. ATKINS; MATTHEW ATWELL; DAVID AUB; SOHA AYYASH; ASIF AZIZ; SUSAN BAILEY; KAREN BAKER; HAB BAKER, III; TERRY BARNES; JOSEPH BARTELL; HARRY L. BARTON; BENJAMIN BASHAM; MATTHEW BASILONE; JOHN BAXTER; JOHN BEASLEY; TIMM BETCHER; ELIZABETH BELEVAN; BARBARA BELL; JUDY BENDER; AMINE BERBALE; JAMES BERLING; SHARON BISDEE; WILLIAM BONNER; WALTER BORDEAUX; GARY BOYETTE; TODD BRADBURY; KAREN BRADBURY; JOHN BRANCATO; WILLIAM BREWSTER; LORI BRODIE; GLORIA BROOKS; ELSE BROWN; MELANIE BROWN; ANGELA BROWN; GARY BROWN; JEANNE BROWN; SYDNEY BRUMBELOW; JAN BURFORD; SARA BURRUSS; JAMIE BURTON; JOSEPH CALDARELLI; JASON CALL; TODD CARLSON; HOWARD L. CARPENTER; CYNTHIA CARTER; FREDERICK CARTER; JACKLYN CASSELLE-TUPPONCE; JARED CASTRO; REBECCA CATLETT; SUSAN CAVE; KIRT CHAPPELLE; LINDA CHEESEBORO; ROGER CHESLEY, JR.; STEVE CHILDRESS; DAN CHO; SUNG CHO; SUNG CHUN; WILLIAM CLARK; LINDA CLUNE; STUART COCHRAN; CHARLES COCHRANE; ANGEL COLLINS; HENRY SHANE COLVIN; KARRI COLVIN; CARLY CONNELLY; ANGIE CONNER; JEREMY CONRAD; PHILIP CORRAO; KIMBERLY CRAWFORD; MARGARET CRITTENDON; APRIL CROCKER; WILLIAM CROMER; JAY CUNNINGHAM; MARY CURTIS; ROBERT DANIELS; DONNA DAVIS; BOYD DAVIS; LISA DAVIS; ROGER DAVIS; MICHELLE DEBROSSE; MICHAEL DECANIO; ALMA DELIA DELEON; JENNIFER DEMARCO; ANTHONY DEPAUL, JR.; GEORGE D. DESPERT, III; CYNTHIA DEVANE; RUTH DIAZ; RON DICKMAN; SHERI DIXSON; SONYA DODSON; JESENIA DOMINGUEZ; TERRY DONALDSON; LATAVIA DREW; ARLENE DREWRY; CHRISTINA DRUGATZ; KAREN DUNCAN; SANDRA K. DUNTON; JEFF EDDY; DEBORAH EDGE; DEBORAH EDGEFIELD; PAMELA EDWARDS; KASEY EIKE; MIRIAH EISENMAN; FREDERICK EITEL; SHARON EKSTRAND; NICOLE ELSESSER; JOSEPH ELTON; KAREN EVANS; MASE FABAR; FLOYD FALLIN, JR.; JAMES BASHAM; ELIZABETH FARRELL; MARGIE D. FAULS; CAITLIN FEELEY; BARRY FELDMAN; BRIAN FELDMAN; WANDA FERGUSON; JAMES FICKLE; SHIRLEY FICKLE; SCOTT FLORA; THOMAS ROBERT FRANCO; JOHN FRANKLIN; TAMMY FRANKLIN; ANTHONY FREDERICK; TRACY FREDERICK; THOMAS FREEZE; ADAM FURMAN; ALICIA FUSCO; DONNA GADDIS; GUILLERMO GALARZA; IVAN GALLOWAY, JR.; IDA GARNER; WILLIS M. GARY; KURT GERGLE; TARUN GHAI; ELAINE GIBSON; HELEN GILLESPIE; MELODY GILLEY; TANJA GILMORE; BRIAN GLAUB; BARRY GOLDBERG; SCOTT GOODMAN; RICHARD GOULD; TROY L. GRAHAM; GABRIELA GRAJEDA; ELIZABETH GRANT; BRANDI GRAY; CHRISTIE GRAY; JANIE GRAY; VALERIE GRAY; GRAYBERG; AYNDRIA GREEN; DIANA GRIFFIN; PAUL L. GROVER; JESSICA GROVES; DEDRA GUENO; CARL GUSSGARD; ARNOLD GUTMAN; JULIAN GUTTERMAN; TESSIE GUTTERMAN; LISA HAGERTY; LAUREN HAGY; CEDON J. HALEY, JR.; DOROTHY HALPIN; NANCY N. HAMLETT; ERESTINE HARDING; DEBORAH HARE; AQUISI HARRIS; KENDALL HARRIS; MARY HARRIS; PATRICE A. HARRIS; BRIANNA HARRISON; SHARON HARRISON; SHARON HART; LEE ANN HARTMANN; PATRICIA HAUSER; DEANNA HAVERLY; LESLIE HEARN; KATHLEEN HEDRICK; AMANDA HEINLEIN; CHARLES HELMS; ROBERT HENDRICKSON; STEPHEN HERMAN; JAMES HERRINGTON; WILLIAM HESTER, JR.; DEBBIE HETTERLY; NANCY HICKMAN; JEREMY HILLBERRY; GREG E. HINES; ROBERT HITE; BRITTANY HOBAN; PAM HODGES; THURMAN HODGES; CHRISTOPHER HOEHN; CAROLYN HORCHNER; JEFFREY HORCHNER; BETTY HORNICK; JENNIFER HORNING; MAJOR M. HORTON; BITSY HOUSE; ALYSSA HRONOWSKI; TEDDY HUDDLESTON; JERRY HUDSON, SR.; HUBERT HUGHES; SHAY HUNTER; MARK HUSTEAD; CAROL HUTCHINSON; NATHEN ILLIDGE; GEORGE IOANNOU; FRANCES JACOCKS; PATRICIA JACOCKS; JASON JAFFEUX; SALLY JAMES; STACEY JANSEN; JOYCE JANTO; WALTER JEFFRIES; JANICE JENKINS; CHELSEA JOHNSON; MONICA JOHNSON; RASHEEDAH JOHNSON; TODD JOHNSON; DERWOOD JOHNSTON; JOHN JOHNSTONE; CHRISTINA JONES; PAMELA JONES; WILBER B. JONES; RICHARD JORDAN; SANDRA JORDAN; SHERYL JORDAN; JENNIFER JUSTICE; KIM KEATING; CODY KELLY; TERESA KELLY; MELANIE KENYON; JOHN KERR; SHEA KERSEY; HANNAH KIGHT; WILLIAM KIGHT; MIKYUNG KIM; CAROLYN KINES; LARRY KING; SUSAN KING; VERNON KIRBY; DIANA KITE; EDWARD KIZER; PATSY KIZER; JOHN A. KNIGHT; CONNIE KNISELEY; DONNA KNOELL; AMANDA KOZAK; TAMARA KROBERT; FRANK KULOVITZ; CARL KURI; KELLY KUSEK; VICTOR C. KVIETKUS; BRENDA LACKEY; TAMMY LACKEY; MARY LANG; MARKUS LANGE; CATHERINE LANTZ; GLENN LAVINDER; CHRISTOPHER LEGENDRE; BARBARA LEGGETT; DAVID LEHMAN; CALVIN LEWIS; CALVIN LEWIS; REGINA LEWIS; DELORES LINDBLOM; WILLIAM LIPFORD; ASHLEY LIPPOLIS-AVILES; MIKE LITTMAN; BILLY LLEWELLYN; ROBIN LOVETT; DAVID LOVING; CYANE LOWDEN; KEN LU; JOSHUA LUBECK; ROBERT R. LUCAS; PATRICIA LYONS; WILLIAM LYONS; CHRISTINE MACCASLIN; ANITA MADISON; JOHN MALIZIA; SUZANNE MALIZIA; THOMAS MALONE; STANLEY MARCUS; HEATHER MATSEY; JAMES MATSEY; RODNEY MATTHEWS; SHAWNA MATTOCKS; MATTHEW MATTRO; JEFF MAY; HAROLD MAYHEW, JR.; SHAWN MAYNOR; DIANDRA MAYO; ROBERT MCCARRAHER; PENNY MCCENEY; ROBERT MCCLELLAND; MICHAEL MCCLENNING; ROBERT MCCURDY; JOSEPH MCDANIEL; SUSAN MCFADDEN; WILLIAM MCFADDEN; MARK MCGINLEY; RICHARD MCGRUDER; VICTORIA MCGRUDER; DONALD MCINTIRE; KAREN MELLER; KAREN MELLER; CARMEN MERCADO; SCOTT MEYERS; CAROL MIEGGS; CHRISTY MILLER; DAVID MILLER; RON MILLER; MARIA MING LI; MARY MITCHELL; TERRIE MITCHELL; BANKS MITCHUM; BENJAMIN MOHER; DAVID MOLINARI; JUNG MOON; KAREN MOONEY; BONNIE MOORE; MONTE MORGAN; PHILLIP MORGAN; WILLIAM MORGAN; BRYON MOSS; SUZANNE MOWBRAY; DAVID MULLIGAN; MARY MULLIGAN; NANCY MURRAY; ROGER MYERS; PATRICK NANCE; DENNIS NEGRAN; PENNIE NEWELL; GLEN NEWITT; JACQUI NEWITT; EDWARD NEWMAN, JR.; KEVIN NEWSOME; REVEREDY NICHOLSON; PATRICIA NICOSIA; RANDALL NIXON; KAREN NOLAN; RYAN NOLETTE; BRYAN NORDQUIST; SERGEI NOVITSKY; JONATHAN O'BRIEN; WILLIAM O'FLYNN; KAREN O'NEIL; ADRIAN ODYA-WEIS; DENNIS OLEARY; JOHN OLSEN; TANA RAE OROPEZA; BRIAN OSBORNE; CANDACE OWENS; LYNN PAGE; TANYA PALIK; RONA PALMER; ASHLEY PANNELL; HARRY PAULETTE; TANYA PEAKE; DONNA PEARSON; RICHARD PEARSON; JOHN PEDERSEN; CHRIS PENA; ROY MASON PENNINGTON, III; NICHOLAS PEREZ; GREG PERIGARD; KIM PERKINS; MARK PERRY; BRADY PETERS; KAREN PETERS; THOMAS PETIT; REBECCA PETRELLA; SUSAN PETRIE; ADRIAN PHILLIPS, JR.; ANNE PICCIANO; JOHN PICCIANO; CARL PIERCE; SIVATHANU PILLAI; DEBRA PINES; CHARLES PINKARD; LILIA PINSON; ARLOVE PLUNKETT; TIMOTHY POHLIG; DENISE POINDEXTER; RACHEL POLIQUIN; MARGARET POMEROY; DAVID POORE, III; LAURA POTTER; KATHY POWERS; LINDA PRATT; BERNARD PRESGRAVES; JASON PRICE; DENISE PRYOR; JOSHUA PUCCI; VICTORIA PUCKETT; SARA PULLEN; TONY PULLEY; CYNTHIA QUATTLEBAUM; EVA RALSTON; WILLIAM RALSTON; HANNAH RAMEY; JACQUELINE RANDOLPH; THOMAS RANDOLPH; MICHAEL RANGER; BRAD RANSOM; HENRY REQUEJO; DAVID REYNOLDS; ROSE RICKER; DANNY RIDDLE; ROBIN ROBERT; JOSHUA ROBERTS; MARY ROBERTS; ANNIE ROBINSON; ANTONIO ROBINSON; ROCKY ROCKBURN; DREW ROPER; TROY ROSIER; ERIC ROTHMAN; BRIAN ROWE; JULIET ROWLAND; JOHN ROWLEY; NANCY ROWSEY; STEPHEN RUBIS; KYLE RUSSELL; JENNIFER RYAN; THOMAS RYDER; JOSEPH SALAZAR; RANDALL SAMPLES; REBECCA SAMUELSON; THOMAS SANCHEZ; AARON SANDERS; ASOK KUMAR SARKAR; TOM SCARCELLA; EDWARD SCEARCE; SHANE SCHLESMAN; WADE SCHWANKE, JR.; GWEN SEAL; AMY SEAY; BRADLEY SEAY; CHARLES SELTMAN; PATTY SENTER; LYNN SETTLE; TIM SEYMOUR; RONALD SHARP; ERNEST SHARPE; SHIRLEY SHAW; STEPHANIE SHELOR; MICHELLE SHIFFLETT; SANDRA SHIFFLETT; JUNE SHORES; D. SHAWN SHUMAKE; NINA SIBERT; ROBERT SILBER; CHRISTIAN SIMMERS; MARY SINGHAS; RANDALL SINGHAS; AMY SMITH; DAPHNE HOPE SMITH; LISA SMITH; STEPHEN SMITH; SUZANNE SMITH; KRISTINE SMOLENS; HOWARD SNYDER; WESLEY SONGER; EMILY SPARKS; BRIAN SPENCER; SVETLANA SPENCER; PATRICIA SPIER; LORI SPIK; DEREK ST. ONGE; RONALD STAFFORD; JONATHAN STARKS; MARK STEPHENS; TERRY STEPP; SARAH STEVENSON; ERIC STEWART; ROXANNE STITH; TIM STOESSEL; JEAN STOTLER; SARA STRAMEL; LARRY STRAYHORN; FRANKLIN STURKEY; BEN SULLENGER; YOLANDA SULLIVAN; JOHN SUTOR; WANDA SUTPHIN; SHARON SWINBURNE; STELLA TANG; ANDREW TAYLOR; ANN TAYLOR; DONNA TAYLOR; JI JI THEKKEVEEDU; CHRISTOPHER THOME; MICHAEL THOME; DAVID THOMPSON; TOM THOMPSON; ASHLI THURSTON; CHRISTOPHER TOKAR; DION TOMER; CLIFFORD TRIMBLE; SERGIO TROMBA; ADELINE TROTTER; JAMES TURNER; JEFFREY TURNER; OWENS TURNER, JR.; MARILYN TWINE; LONNIE URQUHART; CHERI VALVERDE; MIKE VAMMINO; CARRIE VAN HOOK; KATHERINE VANDENBRIEJE; MILCA VARGAS; MARY VAUGHAN; ROBENA VAUGHAN; JESSYCA VENICE; KIMBERLY VEST; CAROL VIERGUTZ; MARYANN VILLIES; PATRICE VOSSLER; AMADA WAGONER; STACY WALLER; GARY WALTON; GRETCHEN WARD; SHELIA WARD; DANIEL WAXMAN; CHRISTOPHER WEAVER; MARGARET WEBB; LAURA WEISIGER; STEPHANY WHIPPLE; DAVID WHITLEY; SARAH WHITLOCK; DIANE WIEN; ROBERT T. WIENER; CHRISTOPHER WILCHER; MINDY WILLIAMS; VINCENT WILLIAMS; HANNAH WILSON; JUANITA WILSON; RIED WILSON; CHARLES WISER; SHARON WISER; MARK WOEHLER; KENNETH WOMACK; EMILY WONG; GREGORY WOODS; KATHERYN WOOSLEY; CAROL WRIGHT; JONATHAN WRIGHT; MARY WRIGHT; THOMAS WRIGHT; TIMOTHY WRIGHT, JR.; LESLIE YAMNICKY; KENNETH YATES; JAMIE YOUNG; SANDRA YOUNG; ROBERT YOUNIE, II; ATEF ZAYD, Plaintiffs - Appellants,
v.
ALEXANDRIA HYUNDAI, LLC; BROWN'S LEESBURG HYUNDAI, LLC; BROWN'S MANASSAS HYUNDAI, LLC; CHECKERED FLAG IMPORTS, INCORPORATED; CHECKERED FLAG STORE #6, LLC; CRAFT AUTOMOTIVE, INCORPORATED; DUNCAN IMPORTS, INCORPORATED; FAIRFAX HYUNDAI, INCORPORATED; FIRST TEAM, INCORPORATED; GATEWAY HYUNDAI, INCORPORATED; HALL AUTOMOTIVE GROUP, INCORPORATED; HALL HYUNDAI NEWPORT NEWS, LLC; HALL HYUNDAI, LLC; HYUNDAI MOTOR AMERICA, INCORPORATED; MILLER AUTO SALES, INCORPORATED; CAVALIER HYUNDAI, INCORPORATED; HARRISONBURG AUTO MALL, LLC; JAMES CITY COUNTY ASSOCIATES, INCORPORATED; MALLOY HYUNDAI; POHANKA AUTO CENTER, INCORPORATED; PRICE HYUNDAI CORPORATION; PRIORITY GREENBRIER AUTOMOTIVE, INCORPORATED; PRIORITY IMPORTS NEWPORT NEWS, INCORPORATED; ROBERT WOODALL CHEVROLET, INCORPORATED; TYSINGER MOTOR COMPANY, INCORPORATED; WBM, INCORPORATED, d/b/a West Broad Hyundai; WRIGHT WAY AUTOMOTIVE, INCORPORATED, Defendants - Appellees. ALIM ADBURAHMAN; JOHN ABEL; LENA ABEL; TAMARA ADAMS; BRANDON ADAMS; ASHRAS AHMADI; WADHAH AL-HADDAD; CLAUDIA ALLEN; PAUL ALLEN; JAMES ALLER; PEGGY ALLER; JIANPING ALLOCCA; NICOLE ALVARADO; GREGORY AMODEO; ROBERT ANDERSON; SHERRY ANDERSON; DENNIS ANDREW; LINDA G. ANDREWS; TINA ANTLEY; PAULINE APISITPAISAN; MONICA ADAIR ARGENT; GAURAV ARORA; RAMON ARROYO; JAMES E. ASHLEY, JR.; BAKAL ASRAT; ELIZABETH AVALAAN; CHERYL AYCOCK; JOANN K. BACHNER; SHANON BAILESS; CHRISTOPHER BAILEY; ANDY BAKER; BRIAN BAKER; CAROL BAKER; GEORGE BAKER; SUSAN BALLARD; DAVID BALMER; JEFF BARBER; SCOTT BARNITT; LINDA BARR; EMMETT BATTEN; SAMANTHA BEARD CURRY; BRIAN BECKER; ROY BECKER; TONYA BECKER; JOHN BECKNER, JR.; GINA BEEBE; KENNETH BELL; PAMELA BELL; WHITNEY BENSON; RAYMOND J. BERNERO; JOHN BESSERER; COLONEL BILLINGSLY; DANA BISHOP; MICHAEL BIZIK; THOMAS BJERS; PETER BOMBIK; SHARON BONNEAU; VIRGINIA BONNELL; ZESTANN BOOKER; STEPHANIE BORN-NEWTON; JORDAN BOSCH; SHIRLEY BOURNE; CARROL E. BOWEN; JOSEPH BOWE; JANICE BOWLES; JEAN BOWMAN; GRAY BOYCE; RPBERT BRABO, II; CHERYL A. BRADFORD; MARIE BRADLEY; OLIVIA BRADY; PHYLLIS BRANCH; NICOLE BRANDON; JOHNNY W. BRANSON; ELLIOTT ANDREW BRAY; EDMUND P. BREITLING; MARY ANN BRENDEL; MICHELLE BRINDLE; RICHARD BRINDLE; STEVE BRINGHURST; MELANIE BRINK; EDWINA D. BRITT-CRABLE; DANA BROADWAY; BARBARA BROWN; CHRISTINA L. BROWN; DELORES BROWN; JAMES A. BROWN; MATTHEW BROWN; MELANIE BROWN; MELISSA BROWN; NICOLE BROWN; TONY BROWN; PATRICK D. BRYAN; BRIANNE BRYANT; THOMAS J. BULLOCK; BEVERLY W. BURKE; JOYCE BURKE; RICHARD BURKE; MICHAEL BURNAM; JOHN M. BURNETT; DARLENE BURTON; GRACE M. BUTLER; SUZETTE BYRD; JOSEPH CALABRETTA; JAMES CALLIS; CLARE CAMPBELL; DOROTHY CAMPBELL; SETH CAMPBELL; STEVEN CAMPBELL; WHITNEY CAMPBELL; JOYCE CANTRELL; PAUL CAPOZZOLI; PHYLLIS CARIMI; DALE F. CARLEO; DENNIS CARLSON; MARK CARLTON; JAMES CARNEAL; MICHAEL CARPENTER; JOSE CARRASQUILLO; LINDA CARY; LEON CARY; JEFFREY CASH; ILONA CASTRO; ROBERTO CASTRO; JENNY CAVENDER; SHANNON CHAIN; DILIP CHAKRABORTY; BAISHAKHY CHAKRABORTY; ROGER CHELSEA; PETER CHIAMARDAS; MICHAEL CHRISTOPHER; CHERENE CIMBALIST; BENJAMIN CLARK; DANIEL K. CLARK; ELIZABETH CLARK; LARRY CLEMENTS; ROBBIN CLEMENTS; KENDALL S. CLOETER; JEREMY COBB; QUEEN B. COBBS; GARY COCUZZI; JACK VICTOR COHEN; JULIEANNA COLEMAN; CLINTON COLLINS; AMON R. COLLINS, JR.; COLLIN CONNORS; LOLANDA COOPER; SHARON COOPER; EILEEN CORBIN; MICHAEL CORCORAN; KRISTEN CORLEW; GARY COVERSTON; MARINA M. COX; MOSES COX; TAMMY COX; JUSTIN CRONIN; JILL CROWDER; BELINDA CUBBAGE; KELSEY CUBBAGE; BESSIE CUFFEE; DAN CUOMO; BRENDA CURTIS; ELVIS CYPRIANO; STEPHANIE DAENZER; RICHARD L. DAMEWOOD; JON DANCE; WILLIAM DANIEL; BROOKE DAVIES; ANGELA DAVIS; JODY W. DAVIS; MATTHEW DAVIS; JASON DAWSON; LAURIE DAWSON; NELSON DAWSON; PAUL DAWSON; DESIREE DEAN; ANTWAIN DEBERRY; BLAIR DEEM; JENNIFER DEGRAFF; WILLIAM DEJOHN; JOE DELGADO; TOM DELPOZZO; ANTHONY DEPAUL, JR.; MICHAEL DESOUTO; STACY DOBSON; DAVID DOBSON; SONYA DODSON; DAVID DODSWORTH; MASON DOERMANN; YVONNE DOVER; MINNIE DUNFORD; SANDRA K. DUNTON; CHRIS C. DUTTON; DEBORAH EDGEFIELD; KASEY EIKE; MIRIAH EISENMAN; KATHY ELDRETH; TIMOTHY ELLIOTT; THOMAS ENGLISH; KEITH EPPS; CINDY FABER; MASE FABER; LUIS FALCON; JOHN FARMER; BRANDON FARRELL; CHRIS D. FERGUSON; FARANDA FERGUSON; WANDA FERGUSON; JUNE FERRARA; MICHAEL FERTICH; JAMES FICKLE; SHIRLEY FICKLE; JOSELYN FIELDS; JODI FILIPEK; BEVERLY FINTCH; JENNIFER FLEURET; SUSAN FOFI; RANDALL FOFI; LAURI FOUTZ; TIMOTHY FOUTZ; KATHLEEN FOWLER; THOMAS ROBERT FRANCO; GREG FRANK; JOHN FRANKLIN; RONALD FRASIER; CATHLEEN FREIBURGER; SHARON FRITH; MICHAEL FRUITMAN; ALICIA FUSCO; ADLYN FUTRELL; DOUGLAS FUTRELL; GUILLERMO GALARZA; ANTHONY GALLARDY; IVAN GALLOWAY, JR.; PETER GARTNER; CYNTHIA GASTLEY; SHEILA GAY; JESSICA S. GEARHART; PAMELA EDWARDS; JOHN WILLIAM GENTRY; MARK GEORGE; JOHN GILBERT; DANIELLE KAY GILLELAND; ANGELA GIONIS; JACQUELINE GIOVANNELLI; ADAM G. GOLDSMITH; RICHARD GOULD; CARRINE GRAHAM; CHERYL GRAHAM; RAY GRAHAM; TAMMY B. GRAHAM; KAMERON GRAY-HAROLD; ADAM GRAYBERG; AYNDRIA GREEN; LISA D. GREEN; THOMAS GREICO; ROBERT GRIMES; DAVID GROSS; JOE GROSS; JESSICA GROVES; MEGAN GUILLAUME; MICHAEL GUILLAUME; KELLI GUNTER; LAUREN HAGY; RICHARD HALL; DOROTHY HALPIN; PETE HALSETH; DAVID HAMMOND; RICHARD HAMNER; STACY HARDY; JIM HARNEY; TERESA R. HAROLD; AQUISI HARRIS; ASHLEY HARRIS; CHAD HARRIS; ERVIN M. HARRIS; MARY HARRIS; WILLIAM HARRIS; BRIANNA HARRISON; PATRICIA HARRISON; SHARON HARRISON; JESSE HATHAWAY; CLAUDIA HAVEKOST; DAVID HAYNES; LESLIE HEARN; KATHLEEN HEDRICK; ADAM HEIDEL; TINY L. HENLEY; AMBER HERNANDEZ; ZACHACY HERRERA; F. DALE HERRON; TARENNE HERRON; JENNIFER HESTER; DEBBIE HETTERLY; AMANDA HILL; RONALD HILL; CHRIS HILLAND; SHIRLEY B. HINES; VERON HINES; TIMOTHY HINSON; HEATHER HOBACK; BRITTANY HOBAN; DOMINGA HOBBS; MARY HODGES; CHRISTOPHER HOEHN; JERRY HOLLEY; KEISHA HOLLOWAY; BRENDA HOLMES; JAMES HOLMES, III; TIMOTHY HOLROYD; CHAD HOLSTON; CHARLES HOOFNAGLE; CANDI HOOVER; CHARLIE HOPKINS; MARCIA HORSTMAN; RICHARD HOSKINS; CODY HOWARD; JESSICA HOWARD; AUDREY HUBAND; MAX HUBAND; JOHN HUBBARD; SUZANNE HUBBARD; DAVID HUBER; TEDDY HUDDLESTON; AMY HUDSON; HUBERT HUGHES; DENNY HUNCHES; LINNIE HUPE; SHERRY HUTCHINS; DEBORAH G. JACKSON; MITCHELL JACKSON; STANLEY JACKSON, SR.; TRACY JACKSON; JASON JAFFEUX; BRUCE JAMES; SALLY JAMES; SANDY JAMES; WALTER JEFFRIES, SR.; RANDALL JNBAPTISTE; AUSTIN JOHNSON; AUSTIN JOHNSON; EBORAH L. JOHNSON; DAVID W. JOHNSON; BILLY JONES; CHARLIE JONES; CHRISTINA JONES; JOHN K. JONES; PEYTON P. JONES; WILBUR JONES; PHILIP R. JUDSON; KENNETH JUNGERSON; NANCY JUNGERSON; JENIFER JUSTICE; DAVID KADAS; TINA KADAS; GREGORY KASHIN; SRINIVAS KATEPALLI; WILLIAM L. KEE; VICTOR G. KEHLER; SEAN KELLER; TERESA KELLER; CHRISTOPHER KELLY; NONA KELLY; VERONICA KELLY; PATRICK KEOUGH; MEE RAN KIM; CARLTON KINARD; DORIS E. KING; KARL KING; JOHN KIRBY; VERNON KIRBY; DIANA KITE; EDWARD KIZER; PATSY KIZER; JOHN KNIGHT; ANN KORKOLIS; FRED KRAUER, JR.; JEAN KUESTER; KATHRYN KUYKENDOLL; DANIEL KWITCHEN; CHIN KWON; DENNIS LAMB; JEANETTE LAMB; KAREN LAMB; JAMES LAMBERT; STEPHANIE LAMM; KATHY LAMPERT; ANDREW W. LANDER; CODY LAUGHINGHOUSE; DAVID LEATHERMAN; BLAIRE S. LEE; KENNETH LEE; JENNIFER LEEMAN; RONALD LEEMAN; JERRY LERMAN; CALVIN LEWIS; HAYES LEWIS; REGINA A. LEWIS; ROY W. LEWIS; KAREN LILLEY; STEPHEN LILLEY; LYLE LINDBERG; ASHLEY LIPPOLIS-AVILES; BILLY LLEWELLYN; WILLIAM LOHMANN, JR.; ROBIN LOVETT; DAVID W. LOVING; KEN LU; MICHELE J. LUIS; MELINDA LUMPKIN; DIRK LYNCH; GINGER LYNCH; PATRICIA LYONS; WILLIAM LYONS; DINNE MACDONALD; DWAYNE MADDOX; SORAYA MAINS; MELISSA MALONE; THOMAS MALONE; REGINA MANNING; TERRANCE MANNING; KIRAN MANTRALA; ANDREA MARCHESE; STANLEY MARCUS; STEVE MARKOVITS; KENNETH MARTIN; RACHEL MARTIN; REYNALDO MARTINEZ; RALPH MARTINI; CLETIOUS T. MASHBURN; LAUREN MATSKO; SHAWNA MATTOCKS; LEO MAYNES; PENNY MCCENEY; STELLA MCCLAIN; WILLIAM MCCLELLAN; ROBERT MCCLELLAND; SUSAN MCCLELLAND; SUSAN MCFADDEN; RICHARD MCGRUDER; VICTORIA MCGRUDER; DONALD MCINTIRE; ANNE MCKENNA; RACHEL MCKENZIE; KENNETH MCKINNEY; TERESA MCLAWHORN; DAVID MEADOWS; RITA MEDLEY; TOMMY MEDLEY; ROBERT MEEKER; MICHAEL MEISTER; KAREN MELLER; CARMEN C. MERCADO; ROBERT E. MICKLE; EDMEE MIGUEZ-GERSTLE; MICHAEL E. MILLER; LISA MILLFORD; MICHAEL MINTZ; MARY MITCHELL; MICHELLE MONROE; CHRIS MOONEY; GARY MOORE; KAREN MOORE; MELODY MORRIS; SUZANNE MOWBRAY; RAYMOND MUELLER; PATRICK MULHERN; DAVID MULLIGAN; LAURENCE MULLIGAN; MARY MULLIGAN; BILLIE MUTTER; MELISSA MUTTER; KEVIN NEWSOME; REVERDY NICHOLSON; SUSAN NOON; SARAH NOVAK; RACHEL NOVERSA; TODD NUNNALLY; JONATHAN O'BRIEN; DARLENE O'DONNELL; JAMES O'DONNELL; PAUL O'KEEFE; TIMOTHY O'MARA; CAROLYN O'NEILL; PAUL J. O'ROURKE; MALCOLM O'SULLIVAN; BRIAN OSBORNE; SARAH OSINSKI; JESSICA OUTER; HERBERT C. OVERSTREET; CANDACE OWENS; CHRISTOPHER PALAZIO; LYNETTE PALMER-FORD; ASHLEY D. PANNELL; MATTHEW PARK; TERRI PARKER; MICAH PARMAN; BHAGVATI PATEL; MUKESH PATEL; PRADIP PATEL; SHREYA PATIL; JOHN PATTIE; JAMES PEARSALL, JR.; DONNA PEARSON; OREST PELECH; CHRIS PENA; ROY M. PENNINGTON, III; THOMAS PEPE; MARK PERRY; KAREN PETERS; JOHN PETERSON; MARK PETERSON; REBECCA PETRELLA; SUSAN PETRIE; ROBERT PETRUSKA; CLAUDE PETTYJOHN; CARL PIERCE; JANET PIETROVITO; DEBRA PINES; LINDSEY POLI; ANGELA POLINKO; CARLTON POLLARD; DAVID POORE, III; ANTON POPOV; LINDA M. PRATT; JASON PRICE; ROBERT PUAKEA; SARA PULLEN; SARHAN QURAISHI; JAMES RADCLIFFE; MELISSA RADCLIFFE; SCOTT RAMSEY; JACQUELINE RANDOLPH; MICHAEL RANGER; NANCY RANSOME; SHELLIE RENZ; SHERI RESSE; MATTHEW D. REVELLE; STEPHEN RIBBLE; ANITA RICE; LARRY RICE; RICHARD RICHARDSON; CARI RICHARDSON; MICHAEL RICHEY; SARAH RICHEY; MARVIN RIDDICK; DANNY RIDDLE; JENNIFER RIGGER; WAYNE RILEY; TAMRIA RISHER; DANIEL ROBERTS; MARY ROBERTS; SUSAN ROBERTS; GAYE ROBERTSON; SKYLER ROBEY; ANNIE ROBINSON; ANTONIO ROBINSON; KEVIN ROBINSON; PAMELA ROBINSON; ROCKY ROCKBURN; COLETTE ROOTS; DARYL ROOTS; GREGG ROSENBERG; ERIC ROTHMAN; BRIAN ROWE; VIRGINIA A. ROWEN; JULIET ROWLAND; PAUL ROY; RONALD RUCKER; DAVID RUFFNER, JR.; JILL RUFFNER; KRISTYN RUZICKA; JENNIFER RYAN; STEPHEN RYAN; JOSEPH SALAZAR; RACIN SAM; GEORGE SANCHEZ; BONNIE SANDAHL; GARY SARKOZI; JEFF SAUNDERS; JEANNETTE SCHAAR; AILEEN L. SCHMIDT; EDWARD SCHNITTGER; LINDA RUTH SCOTT; GWEN SEAL; AMY SEAY; ANTHONY SELB; DELMAR N. SELDEN; LYNN SETTLE; RICHARD SEYMANN; SHARON SGAVICCHIO; SHA'NESHA SHARPE; ROBERT L. SHELLHOUSE; GARY SHELOR; STEPHANIE SHELOR; BRENDA SHIFFLETT; NINA SIBERT; DAVID SILVERNALE; JESSICA SIMONS; MARY SINGHAS; RANDALL SINGHAS; DONALD SKINNER; RICHARD E. SMITH; SUZANNE SMITH; CYNTHIA L. SNYDER; MANDY SNYDER; HOWARD SNYKER; WESLEY SONGER; JOHN SORESE; RAYMOND M. SOUZA; SHELLIE S. SPADARO; TONY L. SPARKS; LINDA SPRADLIN; SUSAN STANDRIDGE; NANETTE STANLEY; JONATHAN STARKS; EUGENIA STARNES; GARY STECK; REBECCA STECK; ANDREW STEELEY; CAROLYN RENEE STEVENS; SARA STEVENS; SASHA STITT; TIM STOESSEL; CHEVON D. STOKES; EDWARD STOKES; NATHAN STONE; YOLANDA SULLIVAN; DENNIS SUMLIN; JOHNNIE SUMLIN; JOHN SUTOR; WANDA SUTPHIN; STELLA TANG; ANDREW TAYLOR; ANN TAYLOR; KIMBERLY TAYLOR; FREDDY TELLERIA; MATTHEW TENGS; JOHN THACKER; CANDACE TILLAGE; CHRISTOPHER TOKAR; SUSIE TORTOLANI; MARY TRAINOR; ADELINE TROTTER; PEGGY TSACLAS; JAMES TURNER; ROBERT TURNER; RUFUS TUNSTALL; LUCILLE TYLER; TRAVIS TYSINGER; JOHN TYSON; CYNTHIA UTLEY; CARRIE VAN HOOK; DENISE VANGELOS; MILCA VARGAS; ROBERT VARNER; MARY VAUGHAN; ROBENA D. VAUGHAN; KELLY VERHAM; KIMBERLY VEST; CAROL VIERGUTZ; MARY ANN VILLIES; WALLACE VINGELIS; MARVIN WADE; SANDRA WADE; SCOTT WAGGONER; TERESA WAGGONER; MAGI WAGNER; JANE WALLACE; STACY WALLER; SHERYL WALTERS; GARY WALTON; KIMBERLY WARD; CATHERINE WATERS; BERNARD WATTS; MICHAEL WEBB; SCOTT WEBB; MELISSA WEBSTER; SHARON WELLS; STEPHANY WHIPPLE; SARAH WHITLOCK; ROBERT T. WIENER; CHRISTOPHER WILCHER; DAVID WILD; CHRISTINA WILLIAMS; GEORGE WILLIAMS; GINER WILLIAMS; DAGNY WILLS; GARY WILLS; DR. SARAH WILMER; LESLIE WILSON; ROBIN WILSON; THOMAS WINSTON; CHARLES WISER; SARA WOLLMACHER; MIKE WOO; WAYNE H. WOOD; WAYNE WOODHAMS; STACEY T. WOODS; ARTHUR WRIGHT; THOMAS WRIGHT; DAVID WYCKOFF; GINO YANNOTTI; JAMIE YOUNG; JONG YUN; ATEF ZAYD; ANGELA R. ZIMMERMAN; RINGO YUNG, Plaintiffs - Appellants,
v.
ALEXANDRIA HYUNDAI, LLC; BROWN'S LEESBURG HYUNDAI, LLC; BROWN'S MANASSAS HYUNDAI, LLC; CHECKERED FLAG IMPORTS, INCORPORATED; CHECKERED FLAG STORE #6, LLC; CRAFT AUTOMOTIVE, INCORPORATED; DUNCAN IMPORTS, INCORPORATED; FAIRFAX HYUNDAI, INCORPORATED; FIRST TEAM, INCORPORATED; GATEWAY HYUNDAI, INCORPORATED; HALL AUTOMOTIVE GROUP, INCORPORATED; HALL HYUNDAI NEWPORT NEWS, LLC; HALL HYUNDAI, LLC; HYUNDAI MOTOR AMERICA, INCORPORATED; MILLER AUTO SALES, INCORPORATED; CAVALIER HYUNDAI, INCORPORATED; HARRISONBURG AUTO MALL, LLC; JAMES CITY COUNTY ASSOCIATES, INCORPORATED; MALLOY HYUNDAI; POHANKA AUTO CENTER, INCORPORATED; PRICE HYUNDAI CORPORATION; PRIORITY GREENBRIER AUTOMOTIVE, INCORPORATED; PRIORITY IMPORTS NEWPORT NEWS, INCORPORATED; ROBERT WOODALL CHEVROLET, INCORPORATED; TYSINGER MOTOR COMPANY, INCORPORATED; WBM, INCORPORATED, d/b/a West Broad Hyundai; WRIGHT WAY AUTOMOTIVE, INCORPORATED, Defendants - Appellees. LINDA RUTH SCOTT, individually and on behalf of all other Virginia owners similarly situated; DANIELLE KAY GILLELAND; JOSEPH BOWE; MICHAEL DESOUTO, Plaintiffs - Appellants, and JOHN WILLIAM GENTRY, individually and on behalf of all other Virginia owners similarly situated, Plaintiff,
v.
HYUNDAI MOTOR AMERICA, INCORPORATED, Defendant - Appellee.

          Argued: May 9, 2018

          Appeals from the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia, at Charlottesville. Norman K. Moon, Senior District Judge. (3:13-cv-00030-NKM-RSB; 3:14-cv-00002-NKM-RSB; 3:14-cv-00005-NKM-RSB)

         ARGUED:

          James B. Feinman, JAMES B. FEINMAN & ASSOCIATES, Lynchburg, Virginia, for Appellants.

          Shon Morgan, QUINN EMANUEL URQUHART & SULLIVAN LLP, Los Angeles, California, for Appellees.

         ON BRIEF:

          Jakarra J. Jones, Richmond, Virginia, James F. Neale, MCGUIREWOODS LLP, Charlottesville, Virginia; David Cooper, QUINN EMANUEL URQUHART & SULLIVAN LLP, New York, New York, for Appellees.

          Before THACKER and HARRIS, Circuit Judges, and SHEDD, Senior Circuit Judge.

          THACKER, Circuit Judge

         This appeal arises from the dismissal of three consumer actions based on Virginia state law claims. The actions focus on a series of misrepresentations made by Hyundai Motor America ("Hyundai") regarding the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") estimated fuel economy for the 2011, 2012, and 2013 models of the Hyundai Elantra. A Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation ("JPML") consolidated dozens of similar consumer suits in the United States District Court for the Central District of California (the "MDL court"). But the JPML remanded to the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia the three actions at issue in this appeal: Gentry v. Hyundai Motor Am., Inc., No. 3:13-cv-00030; Adbul-Mumit v. Hyundai Motor Am., Inc., No. 3:14-cv-00005; and Abdurahman v. Alexandria Hyundai, LLC, No. 3:14-cv-00002.

         The Western District of Virginia dismissed with prejudice the claims in all three actions, save one claim in the Gentry action, for failure to satisfy federal pleading standards. Because one claim remains pending before the district court, we dismiss the Gentry appeal for lack of jurisdiction. We affirm the district court's dismissal of the Adbul-Mumit and Abdurahman actions and its denial of the plaintiffs' post-dismissal request for leave to amend their complaints in those actions.

         I.

         A.

         In 2011 and 2012, a series of Hyundai advertisements claimed that 2011-2013 models of the Hyundai Elantra delivered an EPA fuel economy rating of 40 miles per gallon. But according to the United States Department of Justice and the California Air Resources Board, Hyundai used improper testing parameters to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. See United States v. Hyundai Motor Co., 77 F.Supp.3d 197, 198-99 (D.D.C. 2015). Hyundai used those parameters to compute an inaccurate fuel economy estimate. On November 2, 2012, after discussions with the EPA, Hyundai issued a press release adjusting the fuel economy rating "by one or two mpg" for "most vehicle[s]." J.A. 398.[1]Hyundai ultimately agreed to pay the largest civil penalty in the history of the Clean Air Act: $93, 656, 600 to the United States and $6, 343, 400 to the California Air Resources Board. See Hyundai and Kia Clean Air Act Settlement, EPA, https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/hyundai-and-kia-clean-air-act-settlement (June 19, 2018) (saved as ECF opinion attachment). Hyundai also forfeited greenhouse gas emissions credits valued "in excess of $200 million." Id.

         B.

         Numerous consumer lawsuits followed. On February 6, 2013, the JPML consolidated more than 50 suits in the Central District of California. Shortly after consolidation, plaintiffs in several consumer suits claimed to have reached a settlement with Hyundai for a single nationwide class. The proposed class consisted of "[a]ny individual who owned or leased a Class Vehicle on or before November 2, 2012." J.A. 1061. The proposed settlement permitted class members to either take a lump sum payment or participate in a reimbursement program offered by Hyundai.

         In late 2013 and early 2014, consumers in Virginia filed the three actions at issue in this appeal, alleging state law consumer protection claims. Each asserts the same three Virginia state law causes of action: (1) a Lemon Law claim;[2] (2) a Virginia Consumer Protection Act claim; and (3) a false advertising claim. Gentry involves a class action complaint with five named plaintiffs filed in the District Court for the Western District of Virginia on August 13, 2013. The named plaintiffs purport to represent a class of similarly situated consumers who purchased Elantras in Virginia. Abdurahman and Adbul-Mumit are mass tort actions filed in Virginia state court on December 18, 2013, and January 10, 2014, respectively. These two actions were removed to the Western District of Virginia in early 2014. Hyundai moved to dismiss the complaints in all three actions.

         In June 2014, before the district court ruled on the motions to dismiss, the JPML transferred Gentry, Adbul-Mumit, and Abdurahman to the MDL court in the Central District of California so as to participate in the ongoing settlement efforts. And, in 2015, the MDL court certified a class for settlement purposes and approved the settlement that permitted class members to either take a lump sum payment or participate in a reimbursement program offered by Hyundai. The JPML later entered remand orders on September 9, 2015, with respect to Gentry, Adbul-Mumit, and Abdurahman, remanding to the Western District of Virginia all plaintiffs who either (1) opted out of the settlement or (2) were not members of the certified class (i.e., individuals who purchased Elantras after November 2, 2012).

         C.

         Upon remand to the Western District of Virginia, the parties filed status reports with the district court. In its status report, Hyundai asserted, "[T]he current complaints are outdated and will only promote confusion going forward" because the complaints "include a mix of pre- and post November 2, 2012 consumers, as well as many settlement class members who did not opt out of the settlement." Hyundai Status Report at 6, Gentry v. Hyundai Motor Am., No. 3:13-cv-00030 (W.D. Va. Aug. 14, 2013; filed Jan. 8, 2016) ECF No. 82.[3] Thereafter, on June 21, 2016, the district court allowed the plaintiffs in each action 21 days to amend their respective complaints, observing that "the complaints now may be stale and in need of updating." Order to Confer at 2, Gentry, ECF No. 86 (filed June 21, 2016). Of note, the district court warned that, if the plaintiffs declined to amend, "the original complaints will be deemed operative" and Hyundai may "renew[] their original motions to dismiss." Id. at 3. The 21 day deadline passed without amendment.

         Nonetheless, the district court granted plaintiffs an additional 20 days to amend. The district court noted that Hyundai had "sought [clarification] from Plaintiffs for almost two years" and that the "cases ha[d] lingered in a state of inactivity for too long." Order Granting Extension at 2, Gentry, ECF No. 89 (filed July 22, 2016). The district court again warned that it did "not intend to further extend this deadline" and that the "prior complaints [will] become ...


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