The opinion of the court was delivered by: Paige J. Gossett United States Magistrate Judge
One or more defendants has filed a motion to dismiss (pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 12) or a motion for summary judgment (pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 56) asking the court to dismiss your case. Because you are not represented by counsel, this "Roseboro Order"*fn1 is issued to advise you of the dismissal/summary judgment procedures and the possible consequences if you fail to respond adequately to defendant's motion. Please carefully review this information, including the attached excerpts of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure regarding motions to dismiss and motions for summary judgment.
You have 34 days from the date of this order to file any material in opposition to the motion that defendant filed. If you fail to respond adequately, the court may grant the defendant's motion, which may end your case.
Explanation of Motions to Dismiss
Motions to dismiss can be filed pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 12. Many motions to dismiss are filed under Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6), in which defendants usually argue that the law does not provide a right to relief for claims that a plaintiff makes in his complaint. Because motions to dismiss usually concern questions of law and not questions of fact, the court presumes as true the plausible facts of the complaint for the purpose of a motion to dismiss.
The court decides a motion to dismiss on the basis of the applicable law and the pleadings, meaning the complaint, defendant's answer (if any), the exhibits attached to the complaint, documents that the complaint incorporates by reference (provided they are both undisputed and pertinent to the pleaded claims), and materials of which the court may take judicial notice. In some cases, the parties present materials outside of the pleadings, such as affidavits or declarations in support of or in opposition to the motion to dismiss. If the court, in its discretion, considers materials outside of the pleadings, the motion to dismiss is converted to a motion for summary judgment under Fed. R. Civ. P. 56. See Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(d).
Explanation of Motions for Summary Judgment
Motions for summary judgment filed by defendants pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 56 argue that the plaintiff's claims are not supported by the specific facts of the case. For example, in a civil rights case brought under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, a defendant may argue in a motion for summary judgment that the facts in the plaintiff's case do not rise to the level of a constitutional violation that would entitle him to relief. Because motions for summary judgment concern both questions of law and questions of fact, if the court finds that there is not any genuine dispute as to any material fact on a claim, the court will determine which party is entitled to judgment under the law. The court decides a motion for summary judgment on the basis of the applicable law, the pleadings, discovery, affidavits, declarations, and any other properly-submitted evidence.
Your Response to the Defendant's Motion
Your filing in opposition to the defendant's motion should be captioned either as "Response to Motion to Dismiss" or "Response to Summary Judgment," as applicable, and should include the following: (1) an explanation of your version of the facts, if different from defendant's version of the facts; and (2) your legal argument regarding why the court should not grant the motion and end your case. Rule 56(c) requires that you support your version of all disputed facts with material such as depositions, documents, electronically stored information, affidavits or declarations, stipulations (including those made for purposes of the motion only), admissions, interrogatory answers, or other materials. Your failure to support facts in dispute with such material may result in the court granting the motion. Any affidavits or declarations you file in opposition to summary judgment must be based on personal knowledge, contain facts admissible in evidence, and be signed by a person who would be competent to testify on matters contained in the affidavit or declaration if called to testify about them at trial. The court will not consider affidavits, declarations, or exhibits that are unrelated to this case, nor will it consider affidavits or declarations that contain only conclusory statements or argument of facts or law. If you fail to dispute the defendant's version of the facts with proper support of your own version, the court may consider the defendant's facts as undisputed.
All affidavits, declarations, or other evidence you submit to the court must be made in good faith and the facts sworn to in the affidavit or affirmed in the declaration must be true. All affidavits and declarations submitted in this case are submitted under penalties of perjury or subornation of perjury. 18 U.S.C. §§ 1621 and 1622. If the court finds that a party has presented affidavits, declarations, or other evidence in bad faith or only to delay the action, the court may order sanctions, payment of fees, or hold that party in contempt of court.
EXCERPTS OF FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE
Rule 12 and Rule 56 (effective December 1, 2010)
Rule 12. Defenses and Objections: When and How Presented; Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings; Consolidating Motions, Waiving Defenses; Pretrial Hearing
(a) Time to Serve a Responsive Pleading. [OMITTED]
(b) How to Present Defenses. Every defense to a claim for relief in any pleading must be asserted in the responsive pleading if one is required. But a party may assert the following defenses by motion:
(1) lack of subject-matter jurisdiction;